Component composition of solar cells

Component composition of solar cells
Solar cells are a type of optoelectronic semiconductor thin film that directly generates electricity from sunlight, also known as "solar chips" or "solar cells". As long as it is illuminated under certain conditions, it can instantly output voltage and generate current with a circuit. Solar cells are devices that directly convert light energy into electrical energy through photoelectric or photochemical effects.

Composition and functions of solar cell modules:

1. Tempered glass: Its function is to protect the main body of power generation (such as battery cells), and the selection of light transmittance is required: 1. The light transmittance must be high (generally above 91%); 2. Ultra white steel treatment.

2. EVA: Used to bond and fix tempered glass and power generation components (such as battery cells), the quality of transparent EVA material directly affects the lifespan of the components. EVA exposed to air is prone to aging and yellowing, which affects the transparency of the components, thereby affecting the power generation quality of the components. In addition to the quality of EVA itself, the lamination process of the component manufacturers also has a significant impact. If the EVA adhesive strength is not up to standard, and the bonding strength between EVA and tempered glass and backboard is not enough, it will cause premature aging of EVA, affecting the lifespan of the components. Mainly bonding and encapsulating the power generation main body and backboard.

3. Battery cells: Their main function is to generate electricity. The mainstream solar cells in the power generation market are crystalline silicon solar cells and thin film solar cells, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Crystal silicon solar cells have relatively low equipment costs and high photoelectric conversion efficiency, making them suitable for generating electricity outdoors under sunlight. However, their consumption and cost are high; Thin film solar cells have low consumption and battery cost, excellent weak light effect, and can generate electricity even under normal lighting. However, their relative equipment cost is high, and their photoelectric conversion efficiency is more than half that of crystalline silicon cells, such as solar cells on calculators.

4. Backboard: Function, sealing, insulation, waterproofing (TPT, TPE and other materials are generally used and must be resistant to aging. Most component manufacturers have a 25 year warranty, and tempered glass and aluminum alloy are generally not a problem. The key is whether the backboard and silicone can meet the requirements.)

5. Aluminum alloy protective laminated parts provide a certain sealing and supporting effect.

6. Junction box: protects the entire power generation system and serves as a current transfer station. If a component is short circuited, the junction box automatically disconnects the short circuited battery string to prevent burning out the entire system connection. The most critical aspect of the junction box is the selection of diodes, which vary depending on the type of battery cells inside the component.

7. Silicone: sealing function, used to seal the junction between components and aluminum alloy frames, and between components and junction boxes. Some companies use double-sided adhesive strips and foam to replace silicone, which is commonly used in China. The process is simple, convenient, easy to operate, and the cost is very low.